APWH Unit 5
UNIT 5: 1750 - 1900
New ways of thinking continued to develop and unfold in this era as profound social and political change spurred revolution and the development of industrialized economic might. Very important characteristics and topics that distinguish 1750-1914 from previous eras in world history include the following:
- Patterns of world trade and technology changed as the Industrial Revolution revolutionized communications and commerce.
- Huge numbers of people migrated to the Americas from Europe and Asia, so that population in the western hemisphere grew dramatically, leading eventually to the end of the slave trade and forced migrations from Africa to the New World.
- Industrialization had a huge impact on the environment, as demands for new fuels came about and cities dominated the landscape in industrialized countries. Less industrialized countries often supplied the demand for raw materials, altering natural landscapes further.
- Serf and slave systems became less common, but the gap between the rich and poor grew in industrialized countries. New social and gender roles emerged for both men, women, and children as a result of industrialization. In some cases this manifested itself as an improvement, in other cases it did not.
- Revolutions and independence movements transformed the political and social landscape of many parts of the word as direct result of 17th and 18th century Enlightenment philosophies taking hold, all leading to a developing sense of nationalism.
- The definition of "west" expanded to include the United States and Australia, and western dominance reached not only economic and political areas, but extended to social, cultural, and artistic realms as well.
Comparisons and Snapshots:
- Compare the causes and early phases of the Industrial revolution in western Europe and Japan.
- Compare the Haitian and French revolutions.
- Compare reaction to foreign domination in the Ottoman Empire, China, India, and Japan.
- Compare nationalism, e.g., China and Japan, Cuba and the Philippines, Egypt and Nigeria.
- Compare forms of western intervention in Latin America and in Africa.
- Compare the roles and conditions of women in the upper/middle classes with peasantry/working class in western Europe.
Need to Know vs. Not Need to Know:
- Women’s emancipation movements, but not specific suffragists.
- The French Revolution of 1789, but not the revolution of 1830.
- Meiji restoration, but not Iranian Constitutional Revolution.
- Causes of Latin American independence movements, but not specific protagonists.
- Boxer rebellion, but not the Crimean war.
- Suez canal, but not the Erie canal.
- Muhammad Ali, but not Isma’il.
- Marxism, but not Utopian socialism.
- Social Darwinism, but not Herbert Spencer.